Monday, September 16, 2013

Latvia in the 20th century - bibliography (Latvijas 20. gadsimta vēstures bibliogrāfija)

From January 1 to February 28, 2013, I was a guest at the Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe in Marburg, Germany, working on the project “Discourse-historical analysis of the press discourse on ethnic conflict in Latvia”. In the following posts I will publish notes made during this short postdoctoral fellowship.  

Here's a link to the Institute's website: 

Latvia in the 20th century - a bibliography (publications available at the Herder Institute; see bottom of the page for bibliographic information) 
The following aspects of the recent history of Latvia have been described sufficiently:
- political events associated with the establishment of the Republic of Latvia in 1918 (Dribins 1997; Bērziņš (ed.) 2003), 
- the regime of Kārlis Ulmanis (Semanis & Freimanis 1993; Hanovs & Tēraudkalns 2012; Scerbinskis (ed.) 2012), 
- Latvia in World War II (Mangulis 1983; Ezergailis 1989; Grava-Kreituse, Feldmanis, Loeber, et al. 1995; Gardon 2001; Bleiere (ed.) 2011; Housden & Smith (eds.) 2011), 
- the resulting incorporation of the country into the Soviet Union (1945-1991) (Popoff 1978; Strods 2007; Blūzma, Jundzis, Riekstiņš, et al. 2009) 
- and the most recent events leading to, and following, its collapse (Lieven 1993; Dreifelds 1996; a collection of “opposing viewpoints” on the breakup of the Soviet Union in Bender & Leone (eds.) 1994).

For an overview of Latvia’s general history in the 20th century, see e.g. Plakans 2005, Bleiere, et al. 2006, Plakans 2011. 
Bleiere et al. 2006 contains a list of monographs, works of resumptive character, memories, collections of documents and writings, conference materials and articles on the history of Latvia in the 20th century (pp. 532-546), and Blūzma, Jundzis, Riekstiņš, et al. 2009 offers a chronological overview of events on Latvian territory from November 18, 1918 to 2004 (pp. 618-637). 

The current situation of ethnic minorities in Latvia is often compared and related to their situation during the first Republic of Latvia (1918-1940); information on the latter may be found in Zezovītovs 1923, Heyking 1922, Metuzāle-Kangere 2004 (on Russian minorities in the inter-war Baltics in general). 
Zīle (ed.) 2001 compares two periods of Latvian history – 1918-1928 and 1991-2001, and contains a chapter on ethnic minorities (Dribins 2001). 
Pabriks 1999 analyses the Latvian nationalism and ethnic policy in the present and the past, and Smith, Galbreath & Swain (eds.) 2010 focuses specifically on the history of Latvia as a nation state. 

After 1940, the Soviet and Nazi occupations proved to have tremendous impact on the demography of Latvia – cf. Nollendorfs & Oberländer 2005, Plakans 2007. 
Due to restrictions imposed on the humanities – including historical and political studies – during the Communist times, between the 1940s and the 1990s many Latvian intellectuals published abroad: e.g. Bilmanis 1944, Bilmanis 1945, Švābe 1948, Kradzins 1949, Latvian Legation 1958, Blodnieks 1960, Švābe 1962, Klīve 1969. On Communist activity and counteractivity in Latvia, consult Niedre & Daugmalis 1999, Bērzs 2011. 

After regaining independence in 1991, the process of nation-building needed to be taken up once again under new conditions. A very good, general outlook on institutional nation-building and minority politics in the Baltic States after independence (with historical references) is offered in Galbreath 2005. The dimension of a nation (nationalizing) state and relations with its minorities is the subject of Jubulis 2001, Tabuns (ed.) 2001, Galbreath 2005, Vanamo 2009, Agarin 2010; for information on these relations against the backdrop of language policy, education and culture, consult Vēbers (ed.) 2000, Galbreath 2005, Silova 2006. An important aspect of historical development of Latvian identity (e.g. Ābols 2003; Lindqvist (ed.) 2003; see also Stukuls Eglitis 2002 on the symbolic and narrative components of reconstructing national identity in the 1990s), the identity of Latvian Russians (e.g. Apine & Volkovs 1998, Apine & Volkovs 2007) and Russians in the post-Soviet world in general (Kolstoe 1995, Laitin 1998, Commercio 2010) has also been discussed sufficiently. Especially worth taking a look at is the bibliography in Agarin 2010 (333-379); as it is a very recent publication, it consists references to the majority of important works on the minorities of all three Baltic states issued over the years. A more pragmatic approach focusing on demographic and labour-related issues may be found in Etnosituācija Latvijā 1992, Pabriks 2002. 

Many works analyse the situation of Russians in Latvia from the perspective of international relations, e.g.: Latvian-Russian relations: Loeber 1995, Moshes 1999, Buhbe & Kempe (eds.) 2005, Muižnieks (ed.) 2006, Muižnieks 2011; Baltic-Russian relations: Berg (ed.) 2009. An interesting recent perspective in the place of Latvia and its ethnic groups in the new political makeup (the EU), cf. Tabuns (ed.) 2001, Ozoliņš 2008, Mole 2012. 

Finally, a lot has been written about the issues and problems of integration; to name just a few: Rodin 1997, Vēbers (ed.) 2000, Aklaev 2001, Djačkova 2003, van Elsuwege 2004, Zepa (ed.) 2004a, 2004b, Zepa 2006, Dribins (ed.) 2007, Šūpule 2007, Muižnieks 2010; on the aspect of ethnic conflict, cf. Zepa, Šūpule, Kļave et al. 2005, Dribins (ed.) 2007, Muižnieks (ed.) 2008, and on the aspect of human rights, cf. Nowakowski, A. (ed.) 2007, Latvian Human Rights Committee 2008-2011.

a. Latvia (and the USSR) in the 20th century
Ābols, G. 2003. The contribution of history to Latvian identity. Rīga: Nacionālais apgāds
Bender, D., B. Leone (eds.) 1994. The breakup of the Soviet Union: opposing viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press
Berg, E. (ed.) 2009. Identity and foreign policy: Baltic-Russian relations and Europe. Burlington: Ashgate
Bērziņš, V. (ed.) 2003. Neatkarīgā valsts, 1918-1940. Rīga: Latvijas Vēstures Institūta Apgāds
Bērzs, A. 2011. Sarkanie burbuļi. Pretvalstisko sabiedrisko aktivitāšu hronika. 1988-1998. Rīga: Domas spēks
Bilmanis, A. 1944. Free Latvia in free Europe. Philadelphia: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Bilmanis, A. 1945. Latvia between the anvil and the hammer. Washington: Latvian Legation
Björklund, F. 2003. "Pedagogy of the Nation. Nation-building and education in Latvia". In: Lindqvist, M. (ed.) Re-inventing the nation. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the construction of Latvian national identity. 243.-292.
Bleiere, D., et al. 2006. History of Latvia: the 20th century. Rīga: Jumava
Bleiere, D. (ed.) 2011. Otrais pasaules karš un Latvija: notikumi un sekas. 20. gadsimta 40.-60. gadi. Rīga: Zinātne
Blodnieks, A. 1960. The undefeated nation. New York: Speller
Blūzma, V., T. Jundzis, J. Riekstiņš, et al. 2009. Regaining independence: non-violent resistance in Latvia 1945-1991. Rīga: Latvian Academy of Sciences
Buhbe, M., I. Kempe (eds.) 2005. Russia, the EU and the Baltic States. Enhancing the potential for cooperation. Moscow: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Baltic Centre for Russian Studies (conference agenda)
Dreifelds, J. 1996. Latvia in transition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Dribins, L. 1997. Nacionālais jautājums Latvijā 1850-1940. Rīga: Mācību apgāds
Ezergailis, A. 1989. The Holocaust in Latvia. Rīga: Historic Institute of Latvia
Gardon, F. 2001. Latvians and Jews between Germany and Russia. Rīga: Memento
Grava-Kreituse, I., I. Feldmanis, D.A. Loeber, J. Goldmanis, A. Stranga. 1995.
The occupation and annexation of Latvia 1939-1940. Documents and Material. Rīga: Preses nams
Hanovs, D., V. Tēraudkalns. 2012. Laiks, telpa, vadonis: autoritārisma kultūra Latvijā, 1934-1940. Rīga: Zinātne
Housden, M., D. J. Smith (eds.) 2011. Forgotten pages in Baltic history: diversity and inclusion. Amsterdam: Rodopi
Karklins, R. 1994. Ethnopolitics and transition to democracy: the collapse of the USSR and Latvia. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press
Klīve, Ā. 1969. Brīvā Latvija: Latvijas tapšana. Atmiņas, vērojumi un atzinumi. New York: Grāmatu draugs
Kradzins, O. 1949. La destinée tragique de la Lettonie. Mutuelle des Mineurs Lettons en Belgique
Latvian Legation, 1958. Latvia 1918 – 1958: in commemoration of proclamation of Latvia’s independence, November 18, 1919. Washington: Latvian Legation
Lieven, A. 1993. The Baltic revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the path to independence. New Haven: Yale University Press
Lindqvist, M. (ed.) 2003. Re-inventing the nation. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the construction of Latvian national identity.  Botkyrka: Multicultural Centre
Lindqvist, M. 2003. "Introduction". In: Lindqvist, M. (ed.) Re-inventing the nation. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the construction of Latvian national identity. 7.-24.
Linz, J.J., A. Stephan. 1996. Problems of democratic transition and consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press
Loeber, D.A. 1995. The Russian – Latvian territorial dispute over Abrene: a legacy from the times of Soviet rule. New York: School
Mangulis, V. 1983. Latvia in the wars of the 20th century. Princeton Junction: Cognition Books
Mežs, I. 2010. The people of Latvia. Rīga: The Latvian Institute
Mole, R.C. 2012. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London: Routledge
Moshes, A. 1999. Overcoming unfriendly stability: Russian-Latvian relations at the end of the 1990s. Helsinki : Ulkopoliittinen inst.
Muižnieks, N. 1993 "Latvia: origins, evolution, and triumph". In: Bremmer, I., R. Taras (eds.) Nations and politics in the Soviet successor states. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 181.-205.
Muižnieks, N. (ed.) 2006. Latvian-Russian Relations: Domestic and International Dimensions. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds
Muižnieks, N. 2011. Latvian-Russian relations: dynamics since Latvia’s accession to the EU and NATO. Rīga: University of Latvia Press
Niedre, O., V. Daugmalis. 1999. Slepenais karš pret Latviju: komunistiskās partijas darbība 1920-1940. gadā: arhīvi apsūdz. Rīga: Totalitārisma Seku Dokumentēšanas Centrs
Nollendorfs, V., E. Oberländer (eds.) 2005. The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Soviet and Nazi occupations 1940-1991. Symposium of the Commission of the Historians of Latvia. Volume 14. Rīga: Institute of the History of Latvia, University of Latvia
Ozoliņš, J.T. 2008. "Globalisation, citizenship and Latvian identity in a time of change". In: Identity and Locality 2 (55), 75.-95.
Plakans, A. 1995. The Latvians: a short history. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press
Plakans, A. 2007. Experiencing totalitarianism: the invasion and occupation of Latvia by the USSR and Nazi Germany 1939-1991; a documentary history. Bloomington: Authorhouse
Plakans, A. 2011. A concise history of the Baltic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Popoff, G. 1978. The City of the Red Plague: Soviet rule in a Baltic town. Westport: Hyperion Pr.
Scerbinskis, V. (ed.) 2012. Apvērsums: 1934 gada 15 maija notikumi avotos un pētījumos. Rīga: Latvijas Nacionālais Arhīvs
Semanis, E., A. Freimanis. 1993. The transition of political regime in Latvia during post-coup era. Berlin: Institüt für Internationale Politik und Regionalstudien
Smith, D., D. J. Galbreath, G. Swain (eds.) 2010. From recognition to restoration: Latvia’s history as a nation-state. Amsterdam: Rodopi
Strods, H. 2007. Karš pēc kara, 1944-1956. Rīga: Latvijas Okupācijas Muzeja Biedrība
Stukuls Eglitis, D. 2002. Imagining the Nation. History, modernity, and revolution in Latvia. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press
Švābe, A. 1946. Latvija 30 gados: 1918 – 1948. Salach (Formulardruckerei)
Švābe, A. 1962. Latvijas vēsture 1914-1940. Stockholm: Daugava
Tabuns, A. (ed.) 2001. National, state and regime identity in Latvia. Rīga: Baltic Study Centre
von Rauch, G. 1974. The Baltic States: the years of independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 1917-1940. London: Hurst & Company
Zīle, Ļ. (ed.) 2001. Latvija divos laikposmos: 1918-1928 un 1991-2001. Rīga: LV Fonds.

b. Ethnic situation in Latvia (and other post-Soviet countries)
Agarin, T. 2010. A cat’s lick: democratisation and minority communities in the post-Soviet Baltic. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi
Apine, I. 2007. "Etnopolitikas analīze". In: Dribins, L. (ed.) Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. 19.-43.
Apine, I., V. Volkovs. 1998. Slāvi Latvijā: etniskās vēstures apcerējums. Rīga: Mācību apgāds
Apine, I., V. Volkovs. 2007. Latvijas krievu identitāte: vēsturisks un socioloģisks apcerējums. Rīga: Latvijas Universitātes Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts
Björklund, F. 2003. "Pedagogy of the nation. Nation-building and education in Latvia". In: Lindqvist, M. (ed.) Re-inventing the nation. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the construction of Latvian national identity. 243.-292.
Boldāne, I. 2007. "Latviešu etniskā identitāte un tās loma sabiedrības integrācijas procesā Latvijā". In: Dribins, L. (ed.) Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. 65.-86.
Commercio, M.E. 2010. Russian Minority Politics in Post-Soviet Latvia and Kyrgyzstan. The Transformative Power of Informal Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Dribins, L. 1994. "A nation state and its ethnic policies". In: Historical Minorities in Latvia 2(3). 70.-93.
Dribins, L. (ed.) 1996. National and ethnic groups in Latvia. Informative material. Rīga: Preses nams
Dribins, L. 2001. "Etniskās minoritātes Latvijā". In: Zīle, Ļ. (ed.) Latvija divos laikposmos: 1918-1928 un 1991-2001. 307.-329.
Dribins, L. (ed.) 2007. Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. Rīga: Latvijas universitātes Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts
Druviete, I. 2000. "Valsts valoda Latvijas sabiedrības integrācijas procesā". In: Vēbers, E. (ed.) Integrācija un etnopolitika. 184.-198.
Etnosituācija Latvijā = 1992. Etnosituācija Latvijā (fakti un komentāri). Rīga: Latvijas Republikas Statistikas komiteja; Latvijas Zinātņu akadēmijas Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts
Galbreath, D.J. 2005. Nation-building and minority politics in post-socialist states. Interests, influences and identities in Estonia and Latvia. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag
Goldmanis, J. 1994. "Minority deputies in the Saeima (Parliament) of the Republic of Latvia (1922-1934)". In: Historical Minorities in Latvia 2(3). 34.-54.
Heyking, A. 1922. The main issues confronting the minorities of Latvia and Eesti. London: King
Jubulis, M.A. 2001. Nationalism and democratic transition: the politics of citizenship and language in post-Soviet Latvia. Lanham, New York, Oxford: University Press of America
Kolstoe, P. 1995. Russians in the former Soviet republics. London: Hurst & Company
Kolstoe, P. 2000. Political construction sites: Nation-building in Russia and the post-Soviet states. Boulder: Westview
Kuklys, M. 2008. Gender and ethnic representation in the Baltic legislatures: Latvia and Lithuania, 1990-2006. SFB 580, Gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen nach dem Systemumbruch
Laitin, D.D. 1998. Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the New Abroad. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Lasmane, S. 2000. "Integrācija un etniskā identitāte nākotnes ētikas kontekstā". In: Vēbers, E. (ed.) Integrācija un etnopolitika. 405.-416.
Latvian Human Rights Committee. 2008-2011. Citizens of a non-existent state. The long-term phenomenon of mass statelessness in Latvia. Riga: Averti
Lewis, R.A., R. H. Rowland, R.S. Clem. 1976. Nationality and population change in Russia and the USSR. New York: Praeger
Lindqvist, B. 2003. "An arena for contested identities. National identity and ethnic diversity at Latvian schools". In: Lindqvist, M. (ed.) Re-inventing the nation. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the construction of Latvian national identity. 293.-350.
Metuzāle-Kangere, B. 2004. The ethnic dimension in politics and culture in the Baltic countries: 1920-1945. Södertörn : Södertörns högskola
Pabriks, A. 1999. From nationalism to ethnic policy: the Latvian nation in the present and in the past. Berlin: BIAB
Pabriks, 2002. Etniskās proporcijas, nodarbinātība un diskriminācija Latvijā. Rīga: Nordik
Polian, P. 2004. Against their will: the history and geography of forced migrations in the USSR. Budapest: Central European Univ. Press
Rudenshiold, E. 1992. "Ethnic dimensions in contemporary Latvian politics: focusing forces for change". In: Soviet Studies, XLIV: 4, 609.-639.
Rislakki, J. 2008. The case for Latvia. Disinformation campaigns against a small nation. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi
Silova, I. 2006. From sites of occupation to symbols of multiculturalism. Reconceptualizing minority education in post-Soviet Latvia. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing
Smith, G., A. Aasland, R. Mole. 1996. "Statehood, ethnic relations and citizenship". In: Smith, G. (ed.) The Baltic States: The national self-determination of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Basingstoke: Macmillan
Šņitņikovs, A. 2007. "Valsts, etnicitātes un pilsoniskās sabiedrības mijiedarbība integrācijas procesā". In: Dribins, L. (ed.) Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. 10.-18.
Šūpule, I. 2007. "Etniskās attiecības un akulturācijas procesi Latvijā: iedzīvotāju attieksmes pret dažādām akulturācijas stratēģijām". In: Latvijas universitātes raksti. Socioloģija. 714. 31.-43.
Titma, M., N. B. Tuma. 1992. "Migration in the former Soviet Union". In: Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. 329.-337.
Vanamo, S. 2009. On citizenship and identity: the case of the Baltic States and the problems in nationalism today. University of Jyväskylä: MA thesis
Vēbers, E. (ed.) 2000. Integrācija un etnopolitika. Rīga: Jumava
Vēbers, E. 2000. "Pēcvārds". In: Vēbers, E. (ed.) Integrācija un etnopolitika. 503.-508.
Vēbers, E. 2007. "Vai teiksim ardievas sabiedrības integrācijai?" In: Dribins, L. (ed.) Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. 115.-136.
Zepa, B. (ed.) 2004a. Integration of Minority Youth in the Society of Latvia in the Context of the Education Reform. Rīga: Baltijas Sociālo Zinātņu institūts
Zepa, B. (ed.) 2004b. Ethnic Tolerance and Integration of the Latvian Society. Rīga: Baltijas Sociālo Zinātņu institūts
Zepa, B. 2006. The aspect of culture in social inclusion of ethnic minorities: evaluation of the impact of inclusion policies under the open method of co-ordination in the European Union: assessing the cultural policies of six member states (final report Latvia). Rīga: Baltijas Sociālo Zinātņu institūts
Zepa, B., I. Šūpule, E. Kļave, et al. 2005. Ethno-political Tensions in Latvia: The Search for Solutions to Conflicts. Rīga: Baltijas Sociālo Zinātņu institūts
Zezovītovs, K. 1923. Par baltkrieviem un lielkrieviem Latvijā. Rīga: Peterson

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